In the counter-jihad world it is widely taken as unquestionable that the jihad verses of the Koran sanction eternal warfare against non-Muslims until the whole world is converted or subjugated. This is because they are open ended and therefore refer to you and me in London and New York today just as much as they do to Mohammed’s tribal enemies in Mecca in 630 AD. That is what I find when discussing it with counter-jihadists anyway, and it is what I believed until I had a long and bitter debate with someone making the case that mainstream Islam is not unavoidably supremacist because those verses should be interpreted contextually.
It was only some time after that I looked more closely at the jihad verses, and those surrounding them, and realised to my horror that she was right. Or half right anyway. Right that they can very plausibly be interpreted contextually but wrong that Islam is therefore not inherently and unavoidably supremacist. How come?
Imagine that Islam never spread out of Arabia, that perhaps the Persian and Byzantine empires rallied and squashed it, never to be heard of again. Then imagine coming across this strange old book in the loft of a church or synagogue in the one-camel town of Mecca 1400 years later. What would you make of it? I suggest that you would probably think it a collection of tales and motivational sermons from some cult leader to his followers in their bid to take over Mecca and the surrounding area. Would you see anything in it that suggests any ambitions beyond that, anything that clearly mandates eternal application over the whole world?
Take the infamous verse 9:5:
Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
Which idolaters is it referring to? There is nothing which identifies all idolaters for all time. Looking at the previous verses:
In verse 1 and verse 3 Allah is giving Mohammed permission to annul the treaty he made with neighbouring idolaters. In verse 4 Allah makes an exception of those of the idolaters who have abided by the terms of the treaty. So who are the idolaters to be ambushed as instructed in verse 5? Presumably the idolaters who supposedly broke the treaty. Jihadis (and counter-jihadists) claim that the verse refers to all idolaters for all time but they have to derive that interpretation from elsewhere because it is clearly not in the text.
Moreover, the sacred months referred to were a specifically local custom, tying the verse even more firmly to its context. Mohammed got so much grief for carrying out his first caravan raid during that time that Allah was obliged to send down a special revelation to get him off the hook.
Likewise with 9:29:
Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low.
In verse 25 and verse 26 Allah is addressing those Muslims who took part in the Battle of Huneyn. In verse 28 he is referring to those idolaters, necessarily within reach of Mecca, who must not be allowed near the Inviolable Place of Worship, ie the Kaaba in Mecca.
But 9:29 means Jews and Christians everywhere and forever? Really? What would William of Occam (he of the razor) say?
Even with 8:39, one of the two most apparently supremacist verses in the Koran:
And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is all for Allah…
the standard translations say nothing about everywhere and forever. The verse could plausibly be read as being fulfilled when Mohammed marched into the Kaaba and destroyed the 360 other gods.
Verse 34 talks of the Meccans who kept the Muslims from the Kaaba.
Verse 41 is about establishing Mohammed’s cut of the loot.
In verse 42 Allah reminisces about the Battle of Badr.
Who are the unbelievers who must be fought until religion is all for Allah, all unbelievers forever and everywhere or just the Meccans? I see nothing about holy war “without limit of time or space”, just a very specific campaign over control of the Kaaba and booty.
It took Hilali and Khan, the Saudi government’s own translators, to turn it into:
And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world]…
Likewise, they turned 8:60 from the 7th century:
Make ready for them all thou canst of (armed) force and of horses tethered, that thereby ye may dismay the enemy of Allah…
into the decidedly 21st century:
And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to threaten the enemy of Allah…
Admittedly it is the Hilali-Khan translation which is to be found in all those Saudi funded mosques around the world, influencing generations of Salafis, but that adds nothing to its validity, only to its malign effect.
The other most apparently supremacist verse, 48:28, is much the same:
He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion. And Allah sufficeth as a Witness.
The previous verses are clearly about the Muslims’ campaign for control of Mecca and the Kaaba (verse 24, verse 25 and verse 27). That being so, is there any reason to suppose that “all religion” was intended to refer to all religion in the entire world rather than all the religion practised in the vicinity of Mecca?
We could go on but you get the point. I have been through all the 160 or so jihad verses, conveniently highlighted in mauve here, (and their surrounding verses) and can find none which clearly point to a place or time beyond Mohammed’s military campaigns. If you can I would be grateful to hear of them.
Surprisingly, it is a non-jihad verse which seems to provide the strongest support for the supremacist view albeit indirectly, 33:21:
Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembereth Allah much.
Much hangs on this verse. The Sunnah is the example of Mohammed and Sunnis are those who follow it. So what do we find in the example of Mohammed? Some people manage to concentrate on the benign parts of Mohammed’s example but to jihadis (and to those among us who unaccountably harbour an irrational fear of Islam) the example of Mohammed is indisputably red in tooth and claw.
Is it reasonable to think that Allah meant Mohammed’s good example should cease to be taken as such after his death? General examples of any kind are usually regarded as being without an expiry date, probably more so when given by entities who were supposedly there at the beginning of the universe and who will be there at the end.
What then might someone who strives to follow Mohammed’s example make of it in Cardiff or Sydney today (literally today, 2nd May 2017 as an unexceptional example)? Even if Mohammed’s rampages were only ever local, it would be difficult to argue with those who come to the conclusion that Allah would approve of their playing out his murderous example on a larger stage until all unbelievers are converted or subjugated.
On the other hand there are two good pieces of contemporary evidence for Mohammed’s supremacism outside the Koran:
Firstly, there is the documentary evidence of his threatening letters to surrounding kings and even emperors. As far as I know they are undisputed, at least John Andrew Morrow who goes to heroic lengths to whitewash Mohammed in his book about the Covenants of Mohammed accepts them as genuine. The fact that Mohammed had the chutzpah to write to emperors in such terms is highly persuasive of his limitless ambitions but also, look how direct he is with the smaller fry in his neighbourhood:
“Be informed that my religion shall prevail everywhere” (to Haudha bin Ali, governor of Yamama).
“Allah has sent me as a Prophet to all His creatures“ (to Jaifer, King of Oman).
Secondly, there is the circumstantial evidence of the actions of Mohammed’s immediate successors who, as his companions in life, presumably knew his intentions best. Did they settle down and turn Arabia into a model theocracy, happy to let the surrounding infidels get on with their thing? No they consolidated their power with the brutal Ridda Wars then took Islam from Spain to India (and not by knocking on doors). They stopped there not because they had spread the word of Allah far enough but because opposing armies halted them.
Leaving the 7th century behind us, more than 100 years after Mohammed’s death Ibn Ishaq tells us in his biography, which is the foundation of the Sira, that it was Mohammed himself who sent jihad beyond Arabia by ordering an attack against Byzantine Syria from his deathbed.
Ibn Ishaq also tells us that after hitting a stone with his pickaxe during preparations for the Battle of the Trench Mohammed said:
“The first spark means that Allah has promised me the conquest of Yemen ; the second that Allah has granted me the conquest of Syria and the West ; and the third that Allah has bestowed upon me victory over the East.”
Another 100 years after that we see this sort of thing in the Hadiths:
“Allah drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. And I have seen its eastern and western ends. And the dominion of my Ummah would reach those ends…“ Sahih Muslim (41:6904)
I would not want to be convicted on evidence passed down by word of mouth over 200 years but the point is that Mohammed’s supremacism becomes ever more entrenched in Islam. The process is augmented with the great mediaeval commentaries, for instance:
“Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, while delivering the glad tidings to the believers that the Messenger will triumph over his enemies and the rest of the people of the earth“. Tafsir of Ibn Kathir.
And by the various schools of Islamic Law, for instance:
“Among the things that entail apostasy from Islam are…to deny that Allah intended the Prophet’s message (Allah bless him and give him peace) to be the religion followed by the entire world“. The Reliance of the Traveller.
What can we conclude then?
1. The jihad verses do not show that Mohammed was supremacist – ie globally and eternally supremacist.
2. There is good evidence elsewhere that he was, and this has been amplified over the centuries in Islamic scriptures.
I submitted my findings to some knowledgeable people and they said with one voice “So what? Try telling that to Muslims”.
But I do not want to persuade Muslims that Mohammed was not supremacist. I want to persuade non-Muslims that he was despite the limited scope of the jihad verses. As things stand it is too easy for people who know only the Koran to wrongly conclude that Mohammed was not supremacist and therefore Islam isn’t.
They are of course encouraged in this mindset by the many deceptive Islamic apologists (Mehdi Hasan and Reza Aslan come to mind) and by Western (not Eastern) imams. Those people know that there is more to Islam than the Koran but why disturb the infidels’ comfortable illusions? Think beekeepers, smoke, bees.
No, the claim that Mohammed’s supremacism is demonstrated by the jihad verses is not a defensible position. By insisting on something which can be so easily debunked we are undermining our own credibility and reinforcing the preconceptions of a generation who have been told that only phobes and worse challenge the “Religion of Peace” story. Better to abandon it and concentrate on pointing out the evidence elsewhere for both Mohammed’s and Islam’s lust for dominion “without limit of time or space”. Who knows, perhaps the odd rejecter of the counter-jihad message may be persuaded…one less of them, one more of us.
*** UPDATE ***
After all this time and trouble I have finally come across a verse which does appear to unambiguously declare Allah/Mohammed’s universally supremacist intent!
Allah hath promised such of you as believe and do good work that He will surely make them to succeed (the present rulers) in the earth even as He caused those who were before them to succeed (others)… (24:55)
This seems to be a conclusive rebuttal to the contextual argument, ie that there is no Koranic support for Islamic supremacism beyond the Mecca/Medina area of 630 AD.
Ibn Kathir, in his commentary on sura 24, makes his understanding of verse 55 clear:
“This is a promise from Allah to His Messenger that He would cause his Ummah to become successors on earth, i.e., they would become the leaders and rulers of mankind, through whom He would reform the world and to whom people would submit”.
What would those who claim that Islam can live permanently as equals with other religions, without the aim of eventual domination, make of the verse? I never hear them tackle it.
I still think your general arguments have merit. The Quran by itself is pretty vague.
“Allah hath promised such of you as believe and do good work that He will surely make them to succeed (the present rulers) in the earth even as He caused those who were before them to succeed (others)… (24:55)”
Straining to be apologetic, it could still be argued that this verse was revealed around the time of the battle of the Trench when Mo and his followers were being surrounded and that success in the Earth means success in general (in Arabia) over his polytheistic enemies. It could be understood as rallying War-talk for the Battle of the Trench.
After-all, who heard anyone before Mo (those who were before them) conquering the world and the Israelites who were temporarily blessed did not rule the world either?
Straining indeed :)
No, the Israelites never ruled the world but the Egyptians, Alexander, the Persians and the Romans conquered impressive chunks of the known world. And, in his letters, Mo did put the Byzantine and Persian emperors on notice that he had his eye on both their empires.
While I think this is a good debate to be having as this is the frequently expressed position of the apologists, I don’t agree with your arguments.
It is the very vagueness of the Koran that is at the heart of the problem. I don’t think it can be proven completely one way or the other because the “instructions” from the “messenger” simply are not clear enough.
For example you say “There is nothing which identifies all idolaters for all time” but surely there is also nothing (beyond the context of the previous verses) that identifies it as only applying to the idolaters in his time. You say “the standard translations say nothing about everywhere and forever” but neither do they say specifically just for Mo in Mo’s time.
Ultimately what I find compelling is this:
YUSUFALI: “Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah. ”
Mo spread Islam by killing and threatening people so Muslims are supposed to do the same. Again the apologists have a counter argument they say this pattern of conduct only refers to such things as how to worship and so forth, but again the statement is too vague for anyone to be sure that that is what it means. There’s no doubt in my mind that this statement CAN be interpreted as meaning all of Mo’s conduct should be emulated including all the violence etc., especially since that violence was supposedly commanded or praised after the event by Allah.
Thanks for your response. I disagree with your first point. I think 9:1-4 clearly identify which idolaters Allah is talking about. If you think he is also referring to others in 9:5 (or perhaps even in 9:1-4) it is up to you to prove it not up to me to disprove it. That would be a bit like those discussions with religious believers of any kind who assert there is a God and then expect you to disprove it. The only arguments I have had so far involve what people (with various axes to grind) wrote about it hundreds of years later which seems to me only evidence about what they thought.
I think we are more or less in agreement about the example of Mohammed. It is no stretch at all to find supremacism there implicitly. Even if Mo’s rampages were only ever local, it would be difficult to argue with those who come to the conclusion that Allah would approve of their playing out Mo’s murderous example on a larger stage, as those who created the later tradition appear to have done.
Interesting angle ECAW. Yes perhaps limiting consideration to only the Koran, in defining Islam might suggest a limited vision for beyond the Arabian peninsular. But your own notes about the Prophet’s “threatening letters” suggests his meglomania was a work in progress. By the end of his career it appears he was a full blown supremacist. Why else would his followers pursue conquering of distant lands (at great personal risk) if it wasn’t the will of Allah?
We are in complete agreement there Baucent. But of course we only have the texts to go on. Who Mohammed was and how the Koran really started out seem pretty obscure. Have you read Spencer’s “Did Muhammed Exist?”. He thinks the Koran may have started out as a Christian lectionary of all things!